Europe has traditionally been one of the main centers of attraction in the main stream of tourists from all over the world, including from Russia. Despite the fact that there is not enough a large number of beaches and other places for passive recreation, it is a small country with a great history attracts lovers of culture, art and history. One such country is Austria - the birthplace of such great artists as Mozart, Schubert, Haydn, Strauss and many others. Only this enough to want to go there and see the sights of Austria.
Another integral feature of Austria, of course, are the Alps. Mountain resorts are ready to welcome a huge number of those wishing to learn to ski and those who masterfully is skiing or snowboarding. You can choose whichever resort: intimate, crowded, youth and older people. Experienced instructors work with different age groups. So you can go to Austria as a family. For those traveling through Austria in the summer, mountain walks available through alpine meadows to the collection of fragrant flowers and herbs.
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In order to travel, you will need a huge amount of time. For example, in Vienna alone, in addition to museums, galleries, parks and churches, is a huge number of theaters, gardens, churches, concert halls and other architectural landmarks.
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St. Stephen's Cathedral in the capital of Austria
One of the main places that should be visited while in the Austrian capital is St. Stephen's Cathedral, named after the first Christian martyr, whose crowd hammered stones in front of St. Paul's. Even during the existence of such states as Austria-Hungary, on its territory should not be a single church or bell tower, whose height would exceed the height of the South Tower of St. Stephen's Cathedral.
This Catholic cathedral was built for the first time in the early 12th century, but a century later because of the terrible fire burned the whole cathedral. After that there is the reconstruction of buildings, which was consecrated already in 1263. After nearly a century in the place where now is the very south tower, was laid the first stone of the Gothic church.
The scope of the new cathedral amazed all. New walls were built for the old cathedral, so its area is much headroom. A sweep of the towers on the territory of St. Stephen's Cathedral was such that the south tower, the construction of which lasted almost 74 years old, after all was finished, but the North - remained unfinished.
But it is in it is the second largest bell in Europe.
From the old cathedral survived only a few stained glass and fragments of the western facade. In addition, this Roman Catholic cathedral is one of the most visited in Austria, it is a building, which remembers some historic events. For example, during one of the bombings of the Turks in the wall of the South Tower stuck nucleus, which is still in it.
The cathedral kept the symbolic burial of members of the royal Habsburg dynasty, here occurred the funeral of the great composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the last emperor of Austria-Hungary, Franz Josef. His last resting place here are all abbots. St. Stephen's Cathedral is also interesting that it is the icon of Our Lady of Pec. According to legend, during the two weeks of the eye depicted on the icon of Our Lady of Tears flowed. This event took place just during the war with Turkey. From the observation deck, located on the territory of the cathedral, offers a spectacular view of the city.
During the Great Patriotic War, the cathedral courageously withstood all sorts of attacks, including when the order of the commandant of the city, it was decided to destroy the city center. Looters then set fire to shops and looted their shops. The fire spread and the cathedral. The roof of this collapsed, and the largest bell Pummerin broke and fell into the North Tower. The interiors were also destroyed, including large romantic organ.
After the war, the cathedral was restored by volunteers, and in 1948 was re-roofing. Restoration work carried out to this day. It uses a variety of tools, including tools of the Middle Ages and modern computer technology. Instead, destroyed in the fire authority in 1960 there was established a new body-giant, the biggest in the country. It registers 125, 10 thousand pipes and 4 rows of keyboards with pedals.
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Memorial Church in honor of the Empress Elisabeth
Known worldwide as the Princess Sissi, Empress Elisabeth of Bavaria has become one of the most beloved people of the Austro-Hungarian representative of the imperial family. Many members of this family, as well as residents of the court, did not like the Empress. That is what makes Elizabeth travel, spend a lot of time away from their families, from the palace.
Emperor Franz Joseph is very kind to his wife, and this largely explains the fact of the construction of the memorial church in Austria, which is one of the highest. The church was built in 1901 in memory of the Empress Elizabeth. It is located on the mountain Schneeberg. Getting there is very difficult, as it is built at an altitude of almost 2 km above sea level. Only a starting point from which you can get here in transport, is the city of Puchberg am Schneeberg. Hence, at a special cog railway train leave.
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The biggest outdoor concert venue in the world
As the birthplace of the greatest figures in the music world, Austria could not give the palm of the presence of the biggest open area for concerts. Marine scene Bregenz is located right on the waters of Lake Constance. For the first time it was built after World War II, in 1946. The first statement, heard here was devoted to Mozart, it was staged here one of his early operas. After some time, it was decided to reconstruct the scene and to expand the audience, as the number of those wishing to visit this place is constantly increasing. In the mid-20th century there was room 6 of thousands of spectators, but the 80s. It was another major reconstruction and the number of seats reduced.
Each production is unique not only because it is created in the special conditions, if different from the rest of the rooms the atmosphere, but also the fact that each new opera opens here on the other side for spectators. In addition, for each setting are built special, unique scenery. At different times on stage in Bregenz spectators met "Aida" by Verdi, "Tosca" by Puccini and other masterpieces of world music.
Only here you can see a couple who had come here in the evening dresses with diamonds and hats. But they can safely ride on a catamaran to pass the time before the start of the opera. By the way, to get to an idea is not so simple. Tickets, which are limited to a small number of seats in the "hall of" divergent almost instantly. As a result, by the lake with a spectacular picture that besets the minds and imagination of even the most experienced connoisseurs of opera.
There can not be left on the mobile phone, as well as open umbrellas. The second condition is very important for a country like Austria, because the rains are not uncommon. As soon as it starts to rain, production is interrupted. But it should be noted that if the rain stopped the opera in the first step, then the next day your ticket is valid. If you have already started the second act, all the obligations of the organizers before the audience considered satisfied. But even this does not become an obstacle for true music enthusiasts, the city is visited by crowds of music lovers.
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Railway in the Alps - Semmering
Existing surrounded by the most spectacular mountain ridges and peaks in Europe, Austria has repeatedly tried to create a convenient form of transport by which it would be possible without any difficulty to get to the remote region, separated from the central area of mountain ranges. The most successful project of those that have been proposed is the Semmering Railway. Opened in mid-19th century, it was the first route that has been laid over the ridge. Since that time, not only the ways of travel in Austria, but its appearance has changed substantially.
And if earlier, to reach the port of Trieste from Vienna, it was necessary to look for detours, after putting into operation of the road it could be done much faster and more comfortable. And the flow of tourists this particular route is different. But the organization of the event has allowed a large number of not only locals, but also tourists to admire the views of the Alps and meadows from the window of the locomotive and the other attractions of Austria.
Incidentally, it was an ordinary steam engine was chosen as the vehicle. Nothing new, neither the project nor the other voters did not want to take. Although a little later, engineers still thinking about how to create a more powerful locomotives. Most locomotives were created engineer W. Engert. Its creation began to ply on many other railways of the country. Now some of them are used for the organization of tourist trips retro.
Construction of the railway required a huge amount of time, resources and, of course, workers. The event involved about 20,000 workers. During the construction of the railway on the road has grown more hundreds of new bridges, 16 viaducts, 14 tunnels have been hacked. No waste during construction was not, and all tunnels carved into the stones used in the future for the construction of stations and administrative buildings.
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House museum in the Austrian capital
Vienna is filled with numerous museums, including the Museum houses. They were created at the residences of famous personalities like J. Haydn, WA Mozart, J. Strauss, Beethoven, Freud and many others. al.
The house-museum of Mozart
Mozart spent in Vienna a lot of years. During this time, he changed more than a dozen apartments. But the longest period of his life he spent in Vienna at Domgasse, 5. Apartment on the 2nd floor consisting of 4 rooms, 2 rooms, kitchen. This house museum is also called the "house of Figaro", as it is here that was written the opera "The Marriage of Figaro." Reconstruction of the building took place a few years ago (in 2006), and now there is a huge exposure, which is now reserved for all 3 floors of the house. Exhibitions and tours are conducted by music from the opera "The Marriage of Figaro."
House-Museum of Sigmund Freud
The famous psychoanalyst lived in Vienna with his family 47 years. And now the house number 19 on Berggasse, where he also held the reception of their customers, and studied science, the museum is located. Here, apart from residential and working rooms, you can see and learn a little largest library devoted to psychoanalysis. It has 35 thousand copies. As a result of the persecution arranged by the citizens of Jewish descent, the family of Sigmund Freud was forced to go to London in 1938. Together with them were transferred and numerous household items and professional activity of the psychoanalyst. Therefore, in Austria, you will see the famous couch, which in the course of a session of psychoanalysis Freud were customers. The museum has a special place is given to the waiting room, which was a small room, where visitors Freud's apartment waiting for their turn.
The house-museum of Beethoven in Baden
This museum is one of the most interesting sites to visit among travelers.
Ludwig van Beethoven very often in Baden not only to improve their health, get rid of the surging of depression, but also to write some works. It was here, in the house №10 on Rathauzgasse, was completed and the Ninth Symphony is the composer wrote the Missa Solemnis.
In the apartment you can see the piano on which played music composer, bed, pictures, porcelain accessories and reproductions of his musical works.