Quite often women, consult your doctor with complaints of abdominal pain, diagnosed with endometriosis. What is this disease, what causes it, what are the symptoms of endometriosis uterus and how difficult it can be treated?
To date, about endometriosis is known that the disease is caused by the proliferation of cells of the inner layer of the uterine wall, where normally they should not be. Sprawl is cyclical in nature under the influence of the female hormones that cause menstrual bleeding in healthy women of reproductive age - menstruation.
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The cause of endometriosis
Among the reasons cited, and genetic mutations, and participation in the process of cellular enzymes and hormonal changes in women. But as long as absolutely accurate data on the causes of endometriosis is not.
But found that the more susceptible malorozhavshie or nulliparous, infertile women of reproductive age from 40 years and older to menopause. Approximately 50% of adolescent girls, who were operated on because of the pain in the small pelvis, the uterus was diagnosed with endometriosis. Therefore, for your own peace of mind and to avoid the disease is to listen to the recommendations of the gynecologists visit the doctor for preventive examinations twice a year.
Retrograde menstruation theory (implantation theory) treats the disease as the cause of the accidental menstrual blood, which inevitably contains epithelial cells of the uterus, the fallopian tubes, and then - in the abdomen. Endometrial cells are able to take root in those organs where the fall. And then they begin to perform their direct function - to grow and prepare for the fact that their coat gets fertilized egg.
If there is no appearance of a fertilized egg in the uterus, everything is solved in a known manner - swollen mucous membrane is torn away from the damaged vessel is allocated a little blood - is a natural process of menstruation. But stray endometrial tissue behave in the same way: at the right time, they are rejected, but the blood has no access to the outside and into the internal cavity of the body, which causes inflammation and pain.
Irish scientists have discovered a genetic predisposition to endometriosis. The probability of the disease in close relatives increased by about five times compared with those who in the family women are not faced with such a problem. Therefore, research is underway to create a test that would help determine predisposition to endometriosis and made it possible for women at risk to comply with the measures of prevention and not get sick.
One reason doctors believe any surgery on the uterus - abortion, caesarean section et al., Which resulted in the epithelial cells of the blood can be entered anywhere.
Endometrial cells may even occasionally be out of place during fetal development and cause endometriosis girls in the child or occur during menarche (first menstruation).
In no case should not blame yourself and not allow yourself to blame a man in the case, if the disease still occurred.
It's just a coincidence, and a draw was not at fault.
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Types of endometriosis
By location proliferating cell endometrial disease are divided into:
Internal - overgrowth of the endometrium in the muscle layer of the uterus, cervix, and in the channel, in the fallopian tubes;
Outdoor - localized in the ovaries, vagina, vulva, that is, outside of the uterus;
Peritoneal - in the organs of the abdominal cavity, in the intestines, bladder, post-surgical scars, etc .;
Extraperitoneal - outside the abdomen, extremities, in the lungs, and so on.
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Symptoms of endometriosis
Various localization of endometriosis have their symptoms and treatment. In some cases, a woman may not even be aware of the disease and find out about this by accident when viewed from a doctor. But some symptoms of endometriosis uterus still usually make themselves known, and to be sensitive to their health may be time to consult a doctor for advice and treatment.
The most characteristic symptoms of endometriosis - pain of varying strength and location. Painful menstruation - a signal that a woman's body is not all right anyway. More than half of patients with dysmenorrhea seen a few days before the start of menstruation (1-5 days), and reaches a peak on the third day of menstruation. The pain may be caused by the fact that the blood of the affected organ poured into the cyst and it increases the pressure or enters the peritoneal cavity, causing irritation and inflammation.
She can also occur due to increased hormone levels in the blood, prostaglandins, which cause spasm of blood vessels, increase uterine contractions, or from contact with the authorities of neighboring foci. The intensity can be different - from pulling or aching pain to the island, which is given in the groin, anus, feet, lower back, and others. After menstruation pain or significantly weaken or disappear.
Cheerleaders should, and dark brown, brown discharge from the genitals for a few days before and after menstruation, possibly through sexual contact. Quite often they are combined with heavy bleeding during menstruation.
At about a quarter of patients with abdominal pain celebrated without regard to the monthly cycle. This is usually due to the occurrence of secondary inflammation in organs, which settled endometrial cells.
Pain during intercourse occur when localization of the disease into the vagina, rectovaginal septum, sacro-uterine ligaments, and others. Discomfort during intercourse often make a woman give up the fear of intimacy with her husband, which leads to additional stress for both.
But some, or even all the symptoms together may not give rise independently set a diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis itself. They should only be cause for immediate prenatal visits.
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Complications that cause endometriosis
If time does not detect the presence of the disease and did not start his treatment, endometriosis can lead to a number of complications associated with the peculiarities of its course:
Infertility as a result of interruption of tubal patency; violation of oocyte maturation and its exit from the follicle, getting into the fallopian tube to the uterus and promotions, attachment of the egg in the uterus, and the power of the ovum. This can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy, early loss of pregnancy - miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Due to the compression of nerves in the sprawl of the endometrium may occur in organs neurological disorders.
Frequent and heavy bleeding leading to anemia - fatigue, shortness of breath and heart palpitations, headaches and dizziness, tinnitus, etc.
A very serious complication of endometriosis - a rebirth overgrown endometrial cancer.
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How to diagnose endometriosis?
Diagnosis should be sure to spend a gynecologist after a number of the necessary investigations and procedures. Among the studies, if you suspect your doctor may prescribe, and pelvic ultrasound and rectal examination, colposcopy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. These procedures are carried out only in a clinical setting, and only on the basis of their data specialist can draw the appropriate conclusions.
No self-diagnosis or treatment healers should not be
The reason for a doctor to serve as a continuing more than six months of abdominal pain. They may increase premenstrual or during menstruation. There is an opinion of experts, which predisposes to disease bending of the uterus so that if there is such a diagnosis should also be more carefully monitor their body by tracking the most minor infractions.
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Treatment of endometriosis
As soon as the diagnosis became known - endometriosis - a woman asks her natural position, the need for surgical treatment. The decision takes the doctor, depending on the location and severity of the disease outbreak.
The only effective method to combat endometriosis at this time are:
Therapeutic - hormonal treatment and other medications;
Nephron-sparing surgery - the removal of only the affected areas (laparotomy);
Radical surgery - the removal of the uterus and ovaries.
Drug therapy is used to treat endometriosis, the symptoms of which are not expressed or weakly expressed; for young women who want to restore the fertility (ability to conceive and give birth to a child). Methods of its reduced mainly to hormonal, anti-inflammatory, desensitizing and symptomatic therapy.
Because of hormonal methods are mainly used estrogen-progestin, drugs progesterone - oral contraceptives and some others. Their action is aimed at suppressing the production of female hormones in the body and stop the menstrual cycle at all endometrial tissue, wherever they are. Such regression unnecessary tissue occurs only at very long-term medication and requires a systematic observation of a doctor in the event of adverse reactions to treatment with contraceptives.
Symptomatic therapy provides pain relief to improve the quality of life of patients. Used mainly simple analgesics such paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
Developing new drugs is carried out in the direction of increasing efficacy and reducing the time of treatment. New classes of drugs antiprogestagennyh better tolerated and have fewer side effects.
In endometriosis the outer portion of the cervix is usually limited cryodestruction electrocoagulation or lesions on the inside may appoint radiokoagulyatsiyu or laser vaporization, excision of the areas affected by endometriosis. This is also a surgery, but it allows you to save the reproductive functions and to avoid the removal of the uterus.
For the prevention of recurrence of the disease is assigned to hormone therapy lasting up to six months. Its purpose - to suppress the growth of remaining cells and cause their death.
But in some cases, a more complex intervention. In endometriosis of the vagina may require excision of the affected areas; adenomyosis of 1 degree can be limited by removing the damaged section of the endometrium, but in combination with uterine myoma require complete removal of the organ. However, such drastic measures are only used when ineffective medication or intolerance to certain drugs, in very advanced cases, when the centers reach more than 3 cm in diameter or lead to violations in the neighboring organs. The indications for surgery may be the progression of the disease after treatment in women older than 40 years.
In cases of endometriosis localization in other organs of the decision on the methods of treatment require expert advice appropriate profile: urologist, ophthalmologist, surgeon and others.
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Having said that about the surgery for endometriosis is not empty sound advice on a regular, twice a year, preventive examination by a gynecologist. Detection of the disease at an early stage allows the patient to lead a full recovery, the ability to save a full woman's life, the ability to have a child. Therapeutic treatment will not require giving up a career or personal life.
All you need to carefully monitor themselves nulliparous women aged 40 years and older. But girls and young women with the appearance of pain during menstruation should pay attention to it when viewed from your doctor.
After any surgery in the womb should be followed carefully all the instructions of doctors and not to neglect their tips for visiting consultation on schedule.
Prophylactic agents can be called and treatment of any inflammatory diseases in the genital area, even chronic, not to create a risk of uterine surgery, which can lead to the appearance of endometriosis.
On preventive measures against endometriosis need to pay attention to when:
Change the duration of the menstrual cycle;
Weight changes, disclose a violation of metabolism;
Use of contraceptives;
All women aged 30-45 years;
Detection of high levels of estrogen.
Compliance with simple advice and attention to their health for many years to help maintain the health of women and fulfilling life. Love yourself, be healthy.