Unfortunately, technological progress brings man not only exist in our time the benefits of civilization, but also an increased risk of various injuries. That is why every modern woman should know how to provide first aid in an emergency. Quite often a person's life depends precisely on competently rendered first pre-medical care. This article describes an algorithm first aid in the most common accidents. First aid for domestic injuries in many cases save lives.
However, before we talk about this, I would like to give general recommendations for all accidents, without exception, whether it is first aid for frostbite or first aid for bleeding:
- The most important thing you need to do - is to calm down. Panic - the worst is your assistant. In addition, your fear of the affected person is required to be passed, and without which it is very painful and frightening.
- Try as soon as possible to stop the damaging effects of factors on the affected person. However, remember about your own safety - for example, when exposed to carbon monoxide person must be as fast as possible to make the fresh air, but at the same time do not forget to use the means at hand, such as a wet towel, for their own protection. If you find first aid for electrical injury, you must follow some simple rules, which will be discussed below.
- Immediately necessary to call the brigade "first aid". When you call, try to patiently and as detailed as possible to answer all questions the dispatcher. Believe me, the manager is interested in the age of the patient and the circumstances of the incident are not out of idle curiosity. From this information, it depends on what the medical team is necessary in order to provide the best possible quality care.
- Clearly explain to the dispatcher how to get to the scene, if necessary, if the address is hard to find, try to get out and meet the machine "Ambulance". This can save valuable time.
- Do not hesitate to ask for help from the people around you - sometimes it is extremely necessary. If you are on the street, people will be sure to offer assistance. If a misfortune happened in the room, the neighbors, too, will not give you help, even the most basic, such as to meet the ambulance.
- If the victim is conscious person, be sure to try as much as possible to calm him and instill confidence in a favorable outcome.
- If the person is unconscious, be sure to check for his pulse and respiration. When the lack of it immediately begin resuscitation - CPR and chest compressions. Do not stop them before arrival of a brigade "first aid", no matter how much time has passed.
Technique of artificial respiration and heart massage
It was cardiac arrest is one of the most frequent causes of death in people under such accidents like drowning, poisoning, severe injury or electric shock. And in time conducted by cardiac massage is able to save the man's life. However, it is important to carry out chest compressions for it to take effect. Also, be aware that cardiac massage is always done in conjunction with artificial respiration. Resuscitation should begin with the appearance of the victim of human signs of clinical death.
The onset of clinical death can be on the following grounds:
- The absence of pulse in large veins, especially in the carotid artery, which is located on the neck.
- The absence of breathing.
- The lack of reaction of pupils to light, their expansion. However, at this point people who have no medical training, it is not necessary to navigate.
Remember that resuscitation is expedient only in the first 4, a maximum of 5 minutes after the onset of clinical death. In addition, the later will be launched artificial lung ventilation and cardiac massage, the more will suffer from hypoxia internal organs, especially the brain.
However, it would not be sad, there are cases in which resuscitation there is no point, for example, in the case of cardiac arrest after more than 10 minutes. In this case, the person would not be able to resurrect even a miracle, and not that resuscitation. The exceptions are those cases in which cardiac arrest stemmed from a long and severe hypothermia. In this case, the critical time increased to 30 minutes.
Also, do not do artificial respiration and chest compressions, "just in case" - in the case of a person if the victim is unconscious but breathing function and cardiac activity is not depressed.
The very same technique is resuscitation. In case of clinical death of the injured person is necessary to lay on your back on a firm surface, under the shoulders of the person must be to enclose something - for example, coiled roll clothes. This is necessary to prevent sticking of the language of the affected person into the throat, which is an obstacle for artificial respiration.
One who will conduct resuscitation, it is necessary to sit to the left of the injured person, put your hands on the heart, crossing one another and begin to rhythmically press on the chest with a one-touch speed of one second. Sense cardiac massage is that the heart is squeezed by pressing between the spine and the rib cage, causing the blood simply squeezed out of the heart cavities, thus circulation is maintained artificially.
Because of chest compressions in the body of the affected person is fully restored blood flow in the most important vital organs, like the heart and brain. However, as is well known, circulation is necessary primarily to supply the body with oxygen. And in the absence of breathing oxygen nowhere to take in blood. That's what you need at the same time cardiac massage CPR. Inhalation of air in the lungs occurs oxygen supply to the body and reduces the risk of brain cell death.
Before carrying out artificial respiration, you must first clean the mouth and nose of the victim of foreign bodies, silt, sand, vomit or blood. After that, you must firmly hold the injured person's nose and breathe into his mouth air. After two to unclench your nose, after which there will be a passive exhalation. It is also possible to do artificial respiration, holding his mouth and inhaling air through the nose.
Just how effective conductivity resuscitation, can be judged by the following criteria. Artificial respiration may be considered effective in the event that:
- The victim appeared isolated human respiratory movements. However, in this period to stop resuscitation even impossible.
- Full restoration of an independent respiratory function. Only after that mechanical ventilation can be stopped.
A chest compressions is considered successful if cardiac activity is fully restored. Judge whether this can be on the following grounds:
- Discoloration of the skin.
- The disappearance of a bluish tint visible mucous membranes and nail plates.
First aid for injuries
First aid for injuries often allows to save not only health but also human life. That is why it is so important to be able to properly and timely first aid for injuries of any origin. Of course, there are common methods of care. However, it is important to remember that the first aid for head injury is significantly different from the first aid for a spinal injury.
One of the most common injuries are traumatic - brain injuries, such as concussions and broken roof or base of the skull. Often a concussion people are longitudinally lightly, and it is in vain - this is a very serious brain damage. There is often closed traumatic brain injuries as a result of the fall of the head or the blunt impact. Often, concussions are accompanied by brain injury. That is why if a person has a traumatic brain injury, first aid should be provided irrespective of the state of health of the victim.
To suspect the presence of the injured person may be a concussion the following symptoms:
- Loss of consciousness, even short-term.
- Nausea or vomiting, both single and multiple.
- The injured person may complain of dizziness and tinnitus.
- Can visualize a pronounced pallor.
- Often the injured man was an increase in sleepiness.
- In more severe cases, the possible short-term amnesia - memory loss.
If a person has a head injury first aid must be provided immediately. In that case, if the person is unconscious, before the arrival of doctors required to turn the man on the side so that, in case of vomiting, avoid getting vomit in the respiratory tract and asphyxia. However, if the victim has suspected spinal injury, do not attempt to turn it on its side before the arrival of the brigade "first aid" - simply turn to one side his head. After the victim was given first aid at the head injury, it is necessary to deliver to a medical facility for a full examination and treatment.
First medical aid for injuries should be provided strictly depending on what kind of trauma the victim. For example, during car accidents frequently occur chest injuries, first aid in this case is as follows.
One of the most dangerous chest injuries were stab wounds to the chest. When stab wounds can observe symptoms such as pain in the chest, difficulty breathing extreme, the appearance of the wound blood bubbles. Inhalation of the affected person hears a hissing sound, resulting from the fact that air is drawn into the wound.
In the event that you are faced with such views of injury, you first need to close the wound. This is necessary to ensure that the affected person could breathe. To do this, cover the wound with a Band-Aid, placing it on the dense material that will not pass air. In the same case at hand was not anything suitable, even just hold a hand wound. Then immediately call a brigade "first aid".
But even if a person has a light chest trauma, first aid still needs to be provided immediately. Next in frequency trauma - fractures of the ribs, which can be as simple or complex. With simple fractures affected area quickly becomes swollen, causing severe pain that is magnified in the commission of the respiratory movements. The only thing you can do on your own, it is to fix the arm of the affected person, from whose broken rib.
In some cases, there are more complex fractures of the ribs, which entail damage to some internal organs. As a result, internal bleeding could begin. Man while experiencing intense thirst, difficulty breathing, blood may go out of his mouth. Your actions should be the following: try to give the patient the most comfortable position and fix the arm. However, this can be done only if you are absolutely sure of exactly what a person was injured spine.
First aid for a spinal injury should be given with extreme caution, since the movement of the injured person before the arrival of the brigade "first aid" could lead to even greater damage to the spine. Suspect this type of injury can be the case if a person has symptoms such as:
- Acute pain in the neck or back.
- Traumatic brain injury, accompanied by a long-term loss of consciousness.
- Noticeable unnatural position of the neck or spinal column.
- Numbness, inability to move them.
The first thing to do is to immediately call the brigade "first aid". Before the arrival of the doctors to fix the head of the injured person at rest. You can use any means available - collapsed towels or clothing. In the event that a person showing signs of clinical death, you should immediately start resuscitation, but it should not try to change the position of the human body.
First aid for abdominal trauma also depends on what kind of injury the victim rights. Abdominal trauma are of two types:
- Closed abdominal trauma. As a rule, most closed injury occurs as a result of falling on his stomach and hit it. Very often the result of such a drop occurs traumatic impact peritoneal vessels and, consequently, develops internal bleeding. Most often suffer from liver, kidney and spleen.
Signs of such injuries are sudden abdominal pain, severe involuntary muscle tension abdominals, paleness and loss of consciousness.
In severe cases, may develop traumatic shock. It is necessary to help the victim take the most comfortable position for him and immediately call "ambulance." In no case can not be before the arrival of doctors victim drink or give any - any painkillers. If possible, it is advisable to apply a cold compress to the abdomen.
- Open abdominal trauma called penetrating stab wounds, entailing damage to the abdominal organs. In severe cases, possible loss of internal organs. Most often fall bowel loops, with the result that the person affected is growing rapidly traumatic shock.
Unfortunately, very often in the form of such wounds are people close to the affected people without medical training, lost and begin to panic. In no case can not attempt to try to straighten fell internal organs - they must be covered with clean material and do not touch until the arrival of "first aid".
First aid for poisoning
First aid for poisoning, was correct, and to minimize the negative impact of toxins on the body, and sometimes save the man. However, providing first aid in case of poisoning, it is necessary to know exactly what caused the poisoning of humans.
Most often the first aid for food poisoning. After all, this type of poisoning is a leader. The most common cause of such poisoning becomes a contamination of bacteria: botulism, E. coli, staphylococcus or salmonella. The symptoms of this poisoning include:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain of varying intensity in the stomach and intestinal region.
First aid for poisoning food is very simple - you need to provide the sick man to bed at night to limit food intake, but see to it that the sick person drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.
However, in some cases, first aid for poisoning food should be provided to health care professionals:
- If the poisoned child under 5 years of age or older person.
- If the infected person's body temperature more than 39 degrees.
- If vomiting is a continuous, exhausting character.
- If signs of poisoning appear after consuming mushrooms.
One of the most dangerous - mushroom poisoning, first aid can often save lives. If the poisoning is caused by mushrooms, immediately call an ambulance. Before the arrival of the doctors try to induce vomiting in a person poisoned. To do this, give him to drink about a liter of water with her divorced in potassium permanganate.